periods of low temperature and high rainfall. Geological assessment can lead to accurate
prediction of the outbreak ΑΠΟΦΡΑΞΕΙΣ ΒΟΥΛΙΑΓΜΕΝΗ ΑΝΤΩΝΙΟΥ of such events, explain its mechanism of occurrence and assist in the
effective design of protection measures. Koukis et. al. (1997) note that slope movements, which
occur in the form of rockfalls have a relatively high frequency in Greece. The geological structure
of Greece (frequent occurrence of rock formations, existence of faults and fracturing of rocks), the
steep topography and mountainous terrain as well as its high seismicity, creates a significant
rockfall hazard. The rockfall hazard poses a high to very high risk to transportation infrastructure
(Highways and railways), domestic areas, archaeological and national heritage sites (ancient
monuments, castles, etc.).
During the period 2000-2010, an increase in the number of rockfalls was noticed in Greece, due to
intense rainfall events and earthquakes. A significant number of sites, prone to rockfalls, are
known along the transportation infrastructure of Greece, near inhabited areas and archaelogical
sites. Rockfall protection measures have been applied in relatively few places along highways and
other sites in Greece.
The major rockfall at Tempi valley in 2009, led to a loss of human life death and the closure of a
section of the Athens-Thessaloniki national road for several months. Other rockfall events, which
have also led to human life loss, are those in Kakia Scala (2010), Santorini (2011) and Kefalari,
Argos (2012).
2. Rockfall Inventory
2.1. Recorded Data
The case studies that were recorded are those, which have occurred as distinct rockfall episodes in
natural slopes mainly and have impacted human activities, such as roads, inhabited areas and
archaeological sites. Rockfalls, which occur from the road cut slopes along highways in the
national road network, were not recorded in the present study. These are very often and especially
encountered in Pindos mountain range but also in other mountainous areas. Some rockfalls on
highways are
The following data were recorded for each rockfall episode: a) Location, b) Coordinates, Altitude,
c) Type of site (roadway, inhabited area, archaeological site), d) Date (s) of rockfall events, d)
Triggering mechanism (rainfall, earthquake, other), e) Fault scarp presence, f) Geological
formation, g) Rock mass type, degree of fracturing, h) Slope height, i) Slope angle, j) Block size of
fallen blocks, k) Impact type, l) Presence of vegetation (forest etc.), m) Energy level, n) Reference.
The recorded rockfalls are fifty-six events for the period between 1935 and 2013. The locations of
these are presented in Figure 1. Additionally, the most important parameters of these events are
given in Table 1.
It is evident that the frequency of rockfalls has increased significantly in the period between 2000
and 2010. This can be attributed to the increase of intense rainfall periods but also to the extension
of human activities (infrastructure, increase of population etc.). In a number of sites, more than one
event has occurred and thus it is possible to predict the return period of the phenomenon.
Koukis & Ziourkas (1991) and Koukis et. al. (2005) presented a landside frequency zone map for
Greece. The relative frequency of rockfalls in these maps was 11 %.
The maximum frequency of
landslides in those maps, expressed in cases per surface area, is along the Pindos geotectonic zone,.
Based on the present study, this maximum does not also depict the maximum frequency of
rockfalls as it mainly reflects the large number of slope instabilities occurring in the flysch
formation in the form of soil type or composite failures (rotational, translational etc.).
Rockfalls in Greece are more frequent in mountainous areas at slopes with angles greater than 50
degrees, as it can be seen by the concentration of events in Pindos Mt., Tempi valley an
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